Government Organizational structure of the Holy Roman Empire. From the Nuremberg Chronicle The Reich empire was an elective monarchy whose Emperor was crowned by the Pope until For most of its existence the Empire lacked the central authority of a modern state and was more akin to a loose religious confederation, divided into numerous territories ruled by hereditary nobles, prince-bishops, knightly orders, and free cities.
He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles.
He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeriaboth of whom reputedly were Christians.
In the early years of the third century, The roman empire essay increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors.
Beginning inarmies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.
Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" an area on the banks of the lower Danube Riverwith responsibility for border defense.
He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. Inthe legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor.
Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In he was granted the honor of a consulate. Inin the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory.
This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place.
At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion.
His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved.
He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.
Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes.
He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers.
He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person. Following the precedent of Aurelian A.
Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen Princeps or the soldierly general Imperatorbut as Lord and Master Dominus Noster. Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.
Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four.
This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. InDiocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius the father of Constantine Iwho was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galeriuswho was assigned the Balkans in the east.
By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively. Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems.The Fall of the Western Roman Empire The Western Empire fell in the year of A.D.
Perhaps the premier cause for this decline was a massive economic crisis. The second and third cause for the decline of the Western Roman Empire was the military.
The Roman Empire was one of the most powerful empires in the history of mankind. In fact, it may even be considered the most powerful empire to have ever existed.
However, the mighty empire of Rome has fallen. There are many events which many scholars and historians believe have lead to the fall of 3/5(9). Roman Empire Essay The Roman Empire was the largest in the ancient world and at its height controlled the land around the Mediterranean and most of continental Europe, with the exception of modern-day Germany, Denmark, and Russia.
Essay about The Rise Of The Roman Empire - The Roman empire will forever hold a legacy as the greatest and longest standing empires in history.
The Roman Empire was without a doubt the most powerful governing body in the Mediterranean ever. Why did Rome fall? There was not any single cause to the fall of Rome. It was many things occurring in succession to each other.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire .