Hikma is a multinational pharmaceutical group of companies producing high quality pharmaceutical products in finished dosage forms. Hikma has a long-standing history of leadership as a key player in the pharmaceutical market in the MENA Middle East North Africa region dating back to the seventies. Hikma has four major facilities that operate in its core area of business:
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It is intended for the induction of general anesthesia by intravenous injection. Intravenous injection of Etomidate produces anesthesia characterized by a rapid onset of action, usually within one minute. Duration of anesthesia is dose dependent but relatively Hikma pharmaceuticals, usually three to five minutes when an average dose of 0.
Immediate recovery from anesthesia as assessed by awakening time, time needed to follow simple commands and time to perform simple tests after anesthesia as well as they were performed before anesthesiabased upon data derived from short operative procedures where intravenous Etomidate was used for both induction and maintenance of anesthesia, is about as rapid as, or slightly faster than, immediate recovery after similar use of thiopental.
These same data revealed that the immediate recovery period will usually be shortened in adult patients by the intravenous administration of approximately 0. The most characteristic effect of intravenous Etomidate on the respiratory system is a slight elevation in arterial carbon dioxide tension PaCO2.
Reduced cortisol plasma levels have been reported with induction doses of 0. These persist for approximately 6 to 8 hours and appear to be unresponsive to ACTH administration.
The intravenous administration of up to Hikma pharmaceuticals. The hemodynamic effects of Etomidate have in most cases been qualitatively similar to those of thiopental sodium, except that the heart rate tended to increase by a moderate amount following administration of thiopental under conditions where there was little or no change in heart rate following administration of Etomidate.
However, clinical data indicates that Etomidate administration in geriatric patients, particularly those with hypertension, may result in decreases in heart rate, cardiac index, and mean arterial blood pressure. These are insufficient data concerning use of Etomidate in patients with recent severe trauma or hypovolemia to predict cardiovascular response under such circumstances.
Clinical experience and special studies to date suggest that standard doses of intravenous Etomidate ordinarily neither elevate plasma histamine nor cause signs of histamine release.
Limited clinical experience, as well as animal studies, suggests that inadvertent intra-arterial injection of Etomidate, unlike thiobarbiturates, will not usually be followed by necrosis of tissue distal to the injection site.
Intra-arterial injection of Etomidate is, however, not recommended. This reduction in blood flow appears to be uniform in the absence of intracranial space occupying lesions. As with other intravenous induction agents, reduction in cerebral oxygen utilization is roughly proportional to the reduction in cerebral blood flow.
In patients with and without intracranial space occupying lesions, Etomidate induction is usually followed by a moderate lowering of intracranial pressure, lasting several minutes. All of these studies provided for avoidance of hypercapnia. Information concerning regional cerebral perfusion in patients with intracranial space occupying lesions is too limited to permit definitive conclusions.
Preliminary data suggests that Etomidate will usually lower intraocular pressure moderately. Etomidate is rapidly metabolized in the liver. Minimal anesthetic plasma levels of unchanged drug are equal to or higher than 0.
Limited pharmacokinetic data in patients with cirrhosis and esophageal varices suggest that the volume of distribution and elimination half-life of Etomidate are approximately double that seen in healthy subjects.
In clinical studies, elderly patients demonstrated decreased initial distribution volumes and total clearance of Etomidate.
Protein binding of Etomidate to serum albumin was also significantly decreased in these individuals. Reduced plasma cortisol and aldosterone levels have been reported following induction doses of Etomidate. These results persist for approximately hours and appear to be unresponsive to ACTH stimulation.
This probably represents blockage of 11 beta-hydroxylation within the adrenal cortex. Indications and Usage for Etomidate Etomidate Injection, USP is indicated by intravenous injection for induction of general anesthesia.Hikma Pharmaceuticals PLC (HIK:LSE) company profile with history, revenue, mergers & acquisitions, peer analysis, institutional shareholders and more.
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