Introduction This article reviews the technological use of exothermic chemical reactions that release their energy in a very short time interval.
Introduction This article reviews the technological use of exothermic chemical reactions that release their energy in a very short time interval. There are three primary fields of application for these effects: Propellants create a high gas pressure for driving projectiles or rockets and for similar uses.
Explosives create a disruption of solid or liquid bodies, as in construction, mining or warfare. Pyrotechnics have effects that are mainly sound and light, but include many other varied applications, mainly on a small scale.
Fireworks is an application that is entertainment--a show of light, noise and motion. The chemical reactions we shall consider are reactions between an oxidizer that supplies oxygen or receives electrons, and a fuel that combines with the oxygen or releases electrons, and is a reducing agent.
These two functions may reside in the same molecule, or in different molecules. Some constituents, such as sulphur, may serve as either a fuel or an oxidizer. In any case, both functions are present in every explosive a general term for all three kinds of applicationsand the oxygen of the atmosphere plays no role as an oxidizer, as it does in combustion or respiration, two other chemical sources of energy.
For rapid reaction, the oxidizer and the fuel must be intimately mixed before the reaction occurs. In some cases, atmospheric oxidation may play a minor role.
The reactions we use must certainly be spontaneous, yet must not begin until the proper moment, even though all necessary ingredients are in close contact.
This means that there must be some energy barrier to initiation of the reaction, which will not occur until this energy is supplied. This is only meant in a general sense; no such unique barrier can be identified.
The agents will exhibit a range of sensitivity from the exquisitely sensitive that will be set off by the slightest shock, such as the decomposition of NCl3, to an almost total insensitivity, like that of TNT.
In most cases, we search for a degree of sensitivity that will not respond to the usual shocks of handling and transport, but will detonate reliably when a definite stimulus is applied.
The energy to start a reaction may be supplied by impact, friction, heat, flame, spark, radiation, shock wave or deformation. Each explosive agent has its own set of sensitivities to the various stimuli, so there is no single detonation energy that can be supplied by multiple means. The device supplying the initiating reaction is called the detonator, initiator, primer, first fire or some other descriptive name.
The reaction in this device then initiates the main charge. A match is a simple example. The head of the match is the first fire, lighting by friction. Its heat then ignites the wood of the match, which represents the main charge.
Often the "first fire" is not the initiator, but is ignited by it and strengthens its effect. Nuclear explosions will not be included here, but they are precisely analgous to chemical explosions, in that the energy is liberated in a very short time interval by a very exothermic reaction.
There are also mechanical "explosions" where the energy transfers occur in brief intervals. These, also, will not be included. This means that one atom of carbon reacts with one diatomic molecule of oxygen to produce one molecule of carbon dioxide.
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Nitration of Methyl Benzoate Benzene rings are components of many important natural products and other useful organic compounds. Therefore, the ability to put substituents on a benzene ring, at specific positions relative to each other, is a very. Nitration of Methyl Benzoate. 09/04/ – 09/18/ Nitration of Methyl Benzoate. Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to complete the nitration of methyl. Contents. Introduction; Reactions and Heat; Black Powder; Fulminate; High Explosives; Smokeless Powder; Aromatic Explosives; Pyrotechnics; Fireworks; Safety; References.
In masses, 12 g of carbon combines with 32 g of oxygen to make 44 g of carbon dioxide. Of course, here we are taking the weight of a fixed number of atoms or molecules, 6. The ratio of 12 g of carbon to 32 g of oxygen is called stoichiometric, meaning that nothing is in deficiency or excess for a reaction according to this equation.
The writing of an equation does not necessarily mean that the reaction will take place in that way.From Benzene at the gas pump, to Benzene in household solvents and automotive products - here's everything you need to know to protect yourself from this Leukemia hazard.
Nitration of Methyl Benzoate Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to synthesize methyl m-Nitrobenzoate from methyl benzoate, concentrated HNO3, and concentrated H2 SO4 by an electrophilic substitution reaction.
EXPERIMENT 5 ; NITRATION OF METHYL BENZOATE (ELECTROPHILIC AROMATIC SUBSTITUITION) Objectives 1) To prepare and calculate the percentage yield of methyl m-nitrobenzoate by electrophilic aromatic substituition.
2) To get the melting point of the product. Introduction Aromatic substituition is. Nitration of Methyl Benzoate to form Methyl-m-nitrobenzoate via Aromatic Substitution Linh Ngoc Thuy Nguyen Seattle Central Community College Professor: Dr. Esmaeel Naeemi Date: February 21st, Abstract In this experiment, methyl-m-nitrobenzoate, followed the electrophilic addition of aromatic ring, would be formed from the starting material methyl benzoate and nitric acid, under the.
This reaction is a typical example of "Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution".
The use of a mixture of Sulfuric Acid and Nitric Acid is the "classic" way to make the Nitronium Ion (NO 2 +). View Nitration of Methyl Benzoate from BIO at Santiago Canyon College.
Nitration of Methyl Benzoate By Simi Kaur Purpose: The objective of this experiment was to subject Methyl Benzoate to a.