Topics of interest[ edit ] Topics of discourse analysis include:
Cognitive psychology studies cognitionthe mental processes underlying mental activity. Perceptionlearningproblem solvingreasoningthinking An analysis of scholars in the field of psychology, memoryattentionlanguage and emotion are areas of research.
Classical cognitive psychology is associated with a school of thought known as cognitivismwhose adherents argue for an information processing model of mental function, informed by functionalism and experimental psychology. On a broader level, cognitive science is an interdisciplinary enterprise of cognitive psychologistscognitive neuroscientistsresearchers in artificial intelligencelinguistshuman—computer interactioncomputational neurosciencelogicians and social scientists.
Computational models are sometimes used to simulate phenomena of interest. Computational models provide a tool for studying the functional organization of the mind whereas neuroscience provides measures of brain activity.
Community psychology Community psychology deals with the relationships of the individual to communities and the wider society. Community psychologists seek to understand the quality of life of individuals, communities, and society. Their aim is to enhance quality of life through collaborative research and action.
Community psychology makes use of various perspectives within and outside of psychology to address issues of communities, the relationships within them, and people's attitudes about them. Through collaborative research and action, community psychologists practitioners and researchers seek to understand and to enhance quality of life for individuals, communities, and society.
Community psychology takes a public health approach and focuses on prevention and early intervention as a means to solve problems in addition to treatment.
Rappaport discusses the perspective of community psychology as an ecological perspective with the person-environment fit being the focus of study and action instead of attempting to change the person or the environment when an individual is seen as having a problem. Comparative psychology Comparative psychology refers to the study of the behavior and mental life of animals other than human beings.
It is related to disciplines outside of psychology that study animal behavior such as ethology. Although the field of psychology is primarily concerned with humans the behavior and mental processes of animals is also an important part of psychological research.
This being either as a subject in its own right e. This is achieved by means of comparison or via animal models of emotional and behavior systems as seen in neuroscience of psychology e.
Consulting Psychology Consulting psychology includes the application of psychology to consulting contexts at the individual, group and organizational levels. The field specializes in assessment and intervention, particularly in business and organizational applications but also is concerned with the consulting process used to assess and facilitate change in any area of psychology.
Lowman  provides an overview of the field, including the relevance of individual, group and organizational levels to consulting psychologists. Counseling psychology Counseling psychology seeks to facilitate personal and interpersonal functioning across the lifespan with a focus on emotional, social, vocationaleducational, health-related, developmental, and organizational concerns.
Counselors are primarily clinicians, using psychotherapy and other interventions in order to treat clients. Traditionally, counseling psychology has focused more on normal developmental issues and everyday stress rather than psychopathology, but this distinction has softened over time.
Counseling psychologists are employed in a variety of settings, including universities, hospitals, schools, governmental organizations, businesses, private practice, and community mental health centers. Developmental psychology Mainly focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age.
This may focus on intellectual, cognitive, neural, social, or moral development. Researchers who study children use a number of unique research methods to make observations in natural settings or to engage them in experimental tasks.
Such tasks often resemble specially designed games and activities that are both enjoyable for the child and scientifically useful, and researchers have even devised clever methods to study the mental processes of small infants.
In addition to studying children, developmental psychologists also study aging and processes throughout the life span, especially at other times of rapid change such as adolescence and old age. Developmental psychologists draw on the full range of theorists in scientific psychology to inform their research.
Educational psychology Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations.
The work of child psychologists such as Lev VygotskyJean Piaget and Jerome Bruner has been influential in creating teaching methods and educational practices.
Educational psychology is often included in teacher education programs, at least in North America, Australia, and New Zealand. Environmental psychology Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay between humans and their surroundings.
The field defines the term environment broadly, encompassing natural environmentssocial settingsbuilt environmentslearning environmentsand informational environments. Since its conception, the field has been committed to the development of a discipline that is both value oriented and problem oriented, prioritizing research aiming at solving complex environmental problems in the pursuit of individual well-being within a larger society.
Evolutionary psychology Evolutionary psychology explores the evolutionary roots of mental and behavioral patterns, and posits that common patterns may have emerged because they were highly adaptive for humans in the environments of their evolutionary past—even if some of these patterns are maladaptive in today's environments.
Fields closely related to evolutionary psychology are animal behavioral ecologyhuman behavioral ecologydual inheritance theoryand sociobiology. Evolutionary psychology is distinct from, although related to, behavioral genetics.
Memeticsfounded by Richard Dawkinsis a related but competing field  that proposes that cultural evolution can occur in a Darwinian sense but independently of Mendelian mechanisms; it therefore examines the ways in which thoughts, or memesmay evolve independently of genes.
Forensic psychology Forensic psychology applies psychology to legal casescovering a broad range of practices including the clinical evaluations of defendantsreports to judges and attorneys, and courtroom testimony on given issues.
Forensic psychologists are appointed by the court or hired by attorneys to evaluate defendants' competency to stand trial, competency to be executed, sanity, and need for involuntary commitment.
Forensic psychologists provide sentencing recommendations, evaluate sex offenders and treatments, and provide recommendations to the court through written reports and testimony.relationship between psychology and interpersonal communication but to bring forth the the collective wisdom of the scholars and practitioners in a field (p).
analysis is a social psychology and method to improve communication. This theory outlines how we . Rather than writing an analysis of the whole as others have done, I want to instead do a deeper dive into one small part: the scene with the choir.
Currently, school psychology is the only field in which a professional can be called a "psychologist" without a doctoral degree, with the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) recognizing the Specialist degree as the entry level.
For example, Piotrowski () identified the top journals in the field of forensic psychology by performing an analysis of PsycINFO, based on a keyword search strategy of major issues in the field. Another great scholar of the field, Kenneth Gergen, likened acquiring psychological knowledge to building castles in the sand; the information gained from our methods might be impressive, but it.
work of Richards J. Heuer, Jr. on the psychology of intelligence analysis available to a new generation of intelligence practitioners and scholars. Dick Heuer’s ideas on how to improve analysis focus on helping analysts compensate .