Adolescence is always an unsettling time, with the many physical, emotional, psychological and social changes that accompany this stage of life. Unrealistic academic, social, or family expectations can create a strong sense of rejection and can lead to deep disappointment.
Signs and symptoms An lithograph of a woman diagnosed with depression Major depression significantly affects a person's family and personal relationships, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health.
On its own, where you live isn't enough to make you depressed. Personal circumstances and genes also play an important role in mental health, so an area that feels like a downer to one person may. Many of us toss and turn or watch the clock when we can’t sleep for a night or two. But for some, a restless night is routine. More than 40 million Americans suffer from chronic, long-term sleep disorders, and an additional 20 million report sleeping problems occasionally, according to . Nov 19, · For Freida Lockaby, an unemployed year-old woman who lives with her dog in an aging mobile home in Manchester, Ky., one of America's poorest .
Depressed people may be preoccupied with, or ruminate over, thoughts and feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate guilt or regret, helplessness, hopelessness, and self-hatred. These symptoms include delusions or, less commonly, hallucinationsusually unpleasant.
Insomnia is common among the depressed. In the typical pattern, a person wakes very early and cannot get back to sleep.
They may be described as clingy, demanding, dependent, or insecure. The —92 National Comorbidity Survey US reports that half of those with major depression also have lifetime anxiety and its associated disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder. Depression and pain often co-occur.
The diagnosis of depression is often delayed or missed, and the outcome can worsen if the depression is noticed but completely misunderstood.
People with major depression are less likely to follow medical recommendations for treating and preventing cardiovascular disorderswhich further increases their risk of medical complications.
The biopsychosocial model proposes that biological, psychological, and social factors all play a role in causing depression. The preexisting vulnerability can be either genetic  implying an interaction between nature and nurtureor schematicresulting from views of the world learned in childhood.
Childhood trauma also correlates with severity of depression, lack of response to treatment and length of illness. However, some are more susceptible to developing mental illness such as depression after trauma, and various genes have been suggested to control susceptibility.
However, since the s, results have been inconsistent, with three recent reviews finding an effect and two finding none. A study found 44 areas within the chromosomes that were linked to MDD. Therapies associated with depression include interferonsbeta-blockersisotretinoincontraceptives cardiac agents, anticonvulsantsantimigraine drugsantipsychoticsand hormonal agents such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist.
Biology of depression and Epigenetics of depression The pathophysiology of depression is not yet understood, but the current theories center around monoaminergic systems, the circadian rhythmimmunological dysfunction, HPA axis dysfunction and structural or functional abnormalities of emotional circuits.
The monoamine theory, derived from the efficacy of monoaminergic drugs in treating depression, was the dominant theory until recently.
The theory postulates that insufficient activity of monoamine neurotransmitters is the primary cause of depression. Evidence for the monoamine theory comes from multiple areas. Firstly, acute depletion of tryptophana necessary precursor of serotonina monoamine, can cause depression in those in remission or relatives of depressed patients; this suggests that decreased serotonergic neurotransmission is important in depression.
Third, decreased size of the locus coeruleusdecreased activity of tyrosine hydroxylaseincreased density of alpha-2 adrenergic receptorand evidence from rat models suggest decreased adrenergic neurotransmission in depression.Prozac Nation [Elizabeth Wurtzel] on iridis-photo-restoration.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
A book that became a cultural touchstone. -- The New Yorker Elizabeth Wurtzel writes with her finger in the faint pulse of an overdiagnosed generation whose ruling icons are Kurt Cobain.
DSM IV. Major Depressive Episode. A. Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.
Based on a new Gallup poll, the key factor is a secular decline in jobs. The most depressing cities are former industrial centers in upstate New York and the Rust Belt. We identified five cities. Depression is a serious medical illness. It's more than just a feeling of being sad or "blue" for a few days.
If you are one of the more than 19 million teens and adults in the United States who have depression, the feelings do not go away. Facts & Statistics Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in the U.S., affecting 40 million adults in the United States age 18 and older, or % of the population every year.
Anxiety disorders are highly treatable, yet only % of those suffering receive treatment. */ Children's Depression Checklist Co-occurring Disorders and Depression Dealing with Treatment-resistant Depression: What to Do When Treatment Doesn't Seem to Work Depression and African Americans Depression in Older Adults.